Litterally meaning « in the South of the Yue », the kingdom of Nanyue is at its origin the name of Vietnam. Between 2nd and 1st century B.C., it took up an area covering the present Guangdong (Quãng Ðông), Guangxi ( Quãng Tây ) provinces, HaiNam island ( Hải Nam) and the kingdom of Âu-Lac, the ancient country of the Vietnamese. The latter whose king was An Dương Vương was annexed by general Zhao Tuo (Triệu Ðà or Triệu Vũ Vương in Vietnamese ), the future founder of the kingdom of Nanyue.
According to the Vietnamese, the loss of their country was closely linked to the legend of the magic crossbow In fact it was due to the way Triệu Ðà fought a war of lightning against An Dương Vương while making the latter think of territorial compromises. Once these provinces were reunited under his banner, Zhao Tuo set up his seat at Pan You (Phiên Ngung ) not far from Guangzhou, presently Canton. He divided the kingdom of Au La.c into two commands, one known as Giao Chỉ which mainly took up the Bắc Việt region, and the other under the name of Giao Châu which gathered together all the other provinces of North and Central Vietnam (Thanh Hóa, Nghệ An, etc…). According to French researcher Maud Girard-Geslan (1), the population is composed of non-Han belonging to Bai Yue group to which the Luo Yue (Lạc Việt) and Xi Ou (Tây Âu) are attached.
At the fall of the Qin ( 207 B.C. ), he proclaimed himself King of Nanyue and took the title of Wu Wang, than Emperor in 187. He did not stop challenging the Han Empire by harassing it several times and only accepted to submit himself under the Han’s bosom at the disappearance of the dowager empress Lu Zhi (Lữ Hậu). His fame was so great that in Chinese writings at that time, his name in particular his kingdom, was cited several times. He deceased in 137 B.C.. His descendants had to reign this kingdom at least for a century through five generations. His immediate successor was Zhao Mei, his grand son, better known as Emperor Wen of Nanyue. His grave dug on the side of the Xianggang hill, near Canton, was discovered in 1983 by a team of Cantonese archaeologists. Under the influence of his mother of Chinese origin, the last but one emperor of this dynasty decided to yield his kingdom to the Han empire. Knowing of this plan, his prime minister Lử Gia decided to eliminate him as well as his mother and enthroned in his stead his half-brother known as Dương Vương.
Giving usurpation of power as a pretext, the Chinese invaded the kingdom and annexed it in 111 B.C. in spite of Lử Gia’s heroic attitude. Since then, the country of the Vietnamese passed under Chinese domination. The spreading of Chinese culture did not take place in a peaceful manner during these thousand years and was marked by a series of the following bloody revolts:
- The revolt of the heroines Trưng Trắc and Trưng Nhị during the years 40-43 A.D.
- The revolt of the heroine Triệu Ẩu in year 248.
- The revolt of the hero Lý Bổn (or Lý Nam Ðế ) during the years 544-602.
- The revolt led by Mai Thúc Loan (or Mai Hắc Ðế ) in 722.
- The revolt of the hero Phùng Hưng (or Bồ Cái Ðại Vương) in 791.
Cemented by the strong awareness for a Vietnamese unity, the Vietnamese continued to harass incessantly their Chinese invaders and succeeded in wrenching out indep
Luông Pha Bang (Luang Pra Bang)
Luang Pra Bang est une province au nord du Laos d’aujourd’hui. Il y a une époque où Luang Pra Bang était l’ancienne capitale du royaume Lan Xang (Royaume du million d’éléphants) de 13ème siècle jusqu’au 16 ème siècle. Aujourd’hui, elle est la ville que l’organisme international UNESCO reconnut en 1995 comme le patrimoine mondial au niveau architectural, culturel et religieux. C’est la ville que j’aime le plus durant mon séjour au Laos. Quelques sites touristiques dont le touriste ne peut pas se passer sont les suivants: le mont Phousi ou le point culminant de la ville avec 328 marches , la pagode Wat Xieng Thong (la pagode de la ville dorée) située au carrefour des fleuves Mékong et Nam Khan, le palais royal Haw Kham, le marché de nuit au cœur de la ville Luang Pra Bang sur l’avenue principale avec tous les produits artisanaux venant de tous les coins du pays, la grotte Pak Ou où sont trouvées 4000 statues de bouddha de toutes les tailles et formes avec une excursion en pirogue motorisée (2 h au minimum) ou le centre traditionnel des arts et d’ethnologie. C’est ici que le visiteur découvre la diversité du peuple Lao ainsi que son mode de vie. Si le visiteur peut se réveiller tôt, il peut voir à 6 heures précises du matin la procession matinale des bonzes drapés de leurs robes safran, les pieds nus, leur bol d’aumône traditionnel accroché en bandoulière, marchant en file indienne par un groupe de 10 ou 20 personnes au son des clochettes pour demander aux dévots de mettre dans leur sébile tout ce que ces derniers veulent leur donner. Il faut compter au moins deux jours pour visiter tous les sites énumérés ci-dessus.
Luông Pha Băng là một tỉnh thuộc về miền bắc của nước Lào ngày nay. Có một thời Luông Pha Băng còn là cố đô của vương quốc Lan Xang hay là vương quốc của triệu con voi trong suốt thời kỳ từ thế kỷ 13 đến thế kỷ 16. Nay chỉ là một thành phố mà được UNESCO công nhận là di sản thế giới vào năm 1995 về kiến trúc, văn hoá và tôn giáo. Đây là một thành phố mà tớ rất thích khi có dịp tham quan xứ Lào. Có những điểm mà du khách không thể bỏ qua được đó là núi Phú Sĩ nơi cao nhất ở cố đô, chỉ có 328 bậc cũng xem xem với 384 bậc thang của Việtnam, nơi có cờ ở Lũng Cú (Hà Giang), chùa Wat Xieng Thong (hay chùa của thành phố vàng) ở ngã ba sông Cửu Long và Nam Khạn, cung điện Hoàng Gia (Haw Kham), chợ đêm ở trung tâm thành phố bán rất nhiều đổ thủ công mỹ nghệ, động Pak Ou có đến 4000 pho tượng Phật đủ dạng và đủ kích thước mà muốn đến đây phải đi ngược dòng sông Mékong bằng thuyền mất 2 tiếng hay là trung tâm nghệ thuật và dân tộc học có hai tầng. Chính ở nơi nầy du khách sẻ thấy được sự đa dạng sắc tộc Lào cũng như lối sống của người dân Lào. Nếu du khách có thể thức sớm thì xem được buổi diển hành qua thành phố của các nhà sư mặc áo cà sa màu vàng cam, vai để trần, đi chân đất, lần lượt đi qua phố, để người dân nào cũng đến lượt dâng tặng thức ăn, đó là lễ khất thực được diễn ra buổi sáng vào lúc 6 giờ. Muốn tham quan tất cả điểm nầy cũng mất hai ngày đấy.
Eastern Han dynasty (Nhà Đông Hán)
Guimet museum of Asian art (Paris)
Chronology of Eastern Han dynasty
25-57: Guangwudi reign
57-75: Mingdi’s reign
75-88: Zhandi reign
88-106: Heidi reign
106: Shangdi reign
106-125: Andi reign
125: Shaodi reign
125-144: Chongdi reign
145-146: Zhidi reign
146-168: Huandi reign
168-189: Lingdi reign
184: Yellow turban rebellion
189: Shaodi impeachment.
189-220: Xiandi reign.
190: Increasing power of General Cao Cao (Tào Tháo)
220: Death of Cao Cao and Xiandi.
End of Eastern Han dynasty
In the territories conquered by the Han, in particular in the South China, the Chinese assimilation continued in full swing. That is why revolts firstly succeeded each other in the Dian kingdom (Điền Quốc) (86, 83 before J.C., 14 after J.C., from 42 to 45 ). They were repressed with severity. These upheavals were largely due to the Han officials exactions and the Chinese settlers’ behaviour in possession of fertile soils and expulsion of local people in remote corners on his territory. In addition, the latter had to adopt the language, customs and religious beliefs practiced by the Han.
In year 40, a serious rebellion broke out in Jiaozhou province (or Giao Châu in Vietnamese) including at this time, a great part of Kouangsi and Kouang tong territories. It was led by the local prefect’s daughters, the elder Trưng Trắc (Zheng Cè) and her youngest daughter Trưng Nhị (Zheng Èr). As the husband of the elder Shi Suo (Thi Sách) opposed the Chinese assimilation policy conducted brutally by the Chinese proconsul Su Ding (Tô Định), the latter did not hesitate to kill him for making an example against Yue rebels. This killing revolted sisters Trưng and trigged immediately the insurgent movement in Yue territories.
intended to maintain the mat edges thanks to its weight.
Sisters Trưng succeeded in gaining control of 65 citadels for a very short period of time. They were proclaimed Queens on conquered territories and etablished themselves in Meiling (or Mê Linh). In year 41, they were defeated by Chinese general Ma Yuan ( Mã Viện, Phục Ba tuớng quân)(the flow tamer) and preferred the suicide instead of the reddition by pluging into the Hát river. They thus became the symbol of Vietnamese resistance. They continue to be venerated today not only in Vietnam but also in certain areas of Yue territories belonging to China (Kouangsi et Kouang Tong). Ma Yuan began to apply a policy of terror and assimiltaion at forced march by placing at all level administration, Chinese trustwothy men and imposing the Chinese as the official language over the territory of the Vietnamese. It is the first Chinese domination during just 1000 years before the war of liberation started by General Ngô Quyền. In the meantime, Guangwudi (Quang Vũ Đế) succeeded to bring prosperity and stability in his empire by reducing the tax on crops and profits. After his death, his son Mingdi (Hán Minh Đế) imitating Wudi, pursued the policy of expansion by taking an offensive against the northern Xiongnu (Hung Nô) with the aim of releasing the States of Central Asia from the guardianship of the latter and restoring the security of the silk road (con đường tơ lụa) for the benefit of China. Being the brother of Ban Gu (*)(Ban Cố) historian of this time, General Ban Chao (Ban Siêu) was in charge of this military expedition. He succeeded in reaching the sea Caspienne and subduing the Yuezhi (Nguyệt Chi or Nhục Chi) thanks to the Kusana assistance.
(*) Author of Hanshu (Hán Thư)
Galerie des photos